Monday, January 13, 2020

Robert Nozick’s Experience Machine

Good experiences are something that we spend our life constantly striving to obtain. Once we gain these good experiences, we look for the next opportunity in order to gain that same great feeling that we had in our last experience. What if someone told you that there was a way to have these good experiences all the time? You could quite literally plug yourself into a machine that would give you the great experiences that you have been searching for your whole life. The best part is that, once you have decided to plug yourself into this machine, you would feel and think that these false experiences you are having are real. Robert Nozick proposes this very scenario in his book Anarchy State, and Utopia. This scenario is known as â€Å"the experience machine†. (Nozick 1974, 165) Sounds great, doesn’t it? I would beg to differ. Is pleasure really the only thing that we spend our life searching for? I would argue that there are far many other important values other than pure pleasure; that is why I would not plug into the experience machine. While Nozick’s scenario may seem very tempting, there are several key elements to consider before making a decision to enter this experience machine. Does entering this experience machine correspond with one’s set of values? I would say that there are far more important things than just pleasure. It is fair to say that actually doing certain things, and not just simply having the experience of them is a good core value. We want to actually in our real world accomplish our own goals. Attaining these goals are what many people live their lives for. Aristotle claims, â€Å"Man is a goal seeking animal. His life only has meaning if he is reaching out and striving for his goals. (Aristotle, 163) Perhaps this is what we desire; to live our lives striving to achieve our goals. Whether all of our experiences are 100% pleasurable does not matter. As long as we know that we are actually living our own lives. Clearly, there is opposition to my argument. The opposing party may say something like, â€Å"What’s the value in the capacity to freely make decisions or the ability to be in the real world if neither of these things al lows us to feel good? † (Perry, 166) That is a fair question and one that Peter Unger cleverly answers. Unger mentions the tendency for us to buy life insurance as a claim that good experiences are not the only thing that matter to us. We do not get good experiences for paying our life insurance. In fact, we will never experience anything that happens to this money. We do this so that our dependents will benefit from this money. With all this said, we are still very rational in buying this life insurance. (Unger 1990, 166) Therefore, we should value our capacity to make free decisions in the real world over just having good experiences. The life insurance example, that Unger mentions, is a perfect example as to why there are things that matter to us besides pleasure. Nozick sums this up by saying, â€Å"Perhaps what we desire is to live as ourselves, in contact with reality. † (Nozick? 2010, 1) One can interpret Nozick’s statement by his insinuation that gaining pure pleasurable experiences are not as valuable as knowing that we are living in contact with reality. We should cherish and desire our lives in our realistic world; false pleasure experiences have no real value. In our lives, we want to BE certain people—to plug in to an experience machine is to commit a form of suicide. (Nozick? 2010, 1) Plugging into an experience in order for you to merely experience false happenings would be lying to yourself that this gaining false pleasure is actually being experienced. In the real world, we can actually mold ourselves into the person that we want to become through our real experiences. There is a certain value in actually accomplishing a goal that has been set for yourself. We have free will, unlike in the experience machine. This free will allows us live in contact with reality and gain real life experiences by our choosing. This in turn, allows us to become the person that we want to be. Robert Nozick’s experience machine can be extremely tempting when taken at face value. It offers us false pleasure experiences that could possibly entice and excite many to consider plugging into this machine. However, we must not forget that having false good experiences is not worth throwing away a reality rich world—a world in which we have the free will to decide who we will become as a real person. One must never forget this value. This s a complicated matter but Nozick puts it well by saying, â€Å"We learn that something matters to us in addition to experience by imagining an experience machine and then realizing that we would not use it. † (Nozick 1974, 165) When pondering this concept longer, we realize that we actually want to do certain things and not just have the false experience of hav ing done them. (Nozick ? 2010, 1) We come to realize that this experience machine, while being tempting, does not correspond with our values and desires. Losing our free will and all contact with reality is not more tempting than being the authors of our own lives. Reference List (Works Cited) 1. )Nozick, Robert. 1974. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. (cited in Introduction to Philosophy Fifth Edition. John Perry, Michael Bratman, John Martin Fischer. Oxford University Press. 2010. ) 2. )Aristotle. (Quoted in Genius! : nurturing the spirit of the wild, odd, and oppositional child . George T. Lynn, Joanne Barrie Lynn. 2006) http://books. google. com/books? id=LkNsXpMusnwC&pg=PA163&dq=Man+is+a+goal+seeking+animal. +His+life+only+has+meaning+if+he+is+reaching+out+and+striving+for+his+goals. &as_brr=0&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Man%20is%20a%20goal%20seeking%20animal. 20His%20life%20only%20has%20meaning%20if%20he%20is%20reaching%20out%20and%20striving%20for%20his%20goals. &f=false 3. )Perry, John; Bratman, Michael; Fischer, John Martin. Introduction to Philosophy Fifth Edition. Oxford University Press. 2010. 4. )Unger, Peter. 1990. Identity, Consciousness, and Value. (Cited in Introduction to Philosophy Fifth Edition. John Perry, Michael Bratman, John Martin Fisch er. Oxford University Press. 2010. ) 5. )Nozick? , Robert. (quoted in Lewis and Clark: Robert Nozick. The Experience Machine 2010. ) http://legacy. lclark. edu/~jay/Robert%20Nozick. pdf.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

How the 2016 Republican Primaries Worked

The 2016 presidential election was notable for many reasons, not the least of which was the outcome. Major changes to the Republican primary system made in the wake of the 2012 election were intended to speed up the candidate-selection process. But it didnt quite work out that way. What Happened in 2012 Party rules put in place before the 2012 presidential election  lengthened  the amount of time it took the eventual nominee to secure the 1,144 delegates necessary for the nomination. The top three candidates,  Mitt Romney, Rick Santorum, and  Newt Gingrich, were locked in a tight race until the very end, when Utah held the last of the primaries in the nation on June 26. The party convention was held a month later in Tampa, Florida. That November,  Romney  lost by a wide margin to President Barack Obama, giving Obama a  second term in the White House. Two years later, Republican Party leaders met to draft rules for the 2016 primaries. Their chief concern was avoiding another drawn-out primary battle that would force the eventual nominee to spend too much time and money defending himself from attacks by members of his own party. Republican National Committee Chairman  Reince Priebus put it this way in 2014: We have been saying for months that we were no longer going to sit around and allow ourselves to slice and dice for six months, participate in a circus of debates, that we were going to take hold once again of our responsibility at the Republican National Committee because we are the custodians of the nomination process, he said. The 2016 Primaries Per tradition, Iowa Republicans voted first; they caucused on Feb. 1, 2016, and gave Texas Sen. Ted Cruz a slim win over Donald Trump, 28 percent to 24 percent. A little over a week later, New Hampshires GOP held the nations first primary on Feb. 9. Trump won a commanding 35 percent of the vote. Ohio Gov. John Kasich, who would dog Trump throughout the campaign, took second place with 19 percent of the vote. South Carolina and Nevada voted later that month, and Trump won both states. But Sens. Marco Rubio of Florida and Ted Cruz also did well. The ground was set for a fast, brutal primary fight leading up to the July 18 beginning of the national convention.   Because Iowa and New Hampshire guard their first-in-the-nation status so dearly, the GOP rules made sure that any states that tried to vote earlier than these would be punished by losing delegates at the national convention. Victories in these early states would also give an early boost to the winners. Once March began, the pace quickened. States holding their primaries between March 1 and March 14 had to award their delegates on a proportional basis, meaning that no one candidate could likely win the nomination before late-voting states held their primaries. States voting on March 15, 2016, or later could award their delegates on a winner-take-all basis, meaning candidates will likely pay more attention to them.   As the weeks wore on, the contest came down to Trump and Cruz, with Kasich a distant if vocal third. By the time the Indiana Republican primary took place on May 3, it was apparent that Trump would win the nomination after Cruz came in second in that contest and subsequently dropped out of the race. Trump officially crossed the delegate threshold of 1,237 when he won the North Dakota primary on May 26. Aftermath Donald Trump went on to win the presidential election that November ​and the Republican Party maintained its control of both houses of Congress. Yet even before the election, some party leaders were already talking about changes to the 2020 primary system. Among them was a proposal to allow only registered Republicans a vote. Trump won primaries in both South Carolina and Nevada in part because both states permitted independents to vote. As of August 2017, the GOP hasnt yet implemented these reforms.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Plato’s Theory of The Soul in The Republic Essay - 1755 Words

Plato’s Republic introduces a multitude of important and interesting concepts, of topics ranging from music, to gender equality, to political regime. For this reason, many philosophers and scholars still look back to The Republic in spite of its age. Yet one part that stands out in particular is Plato’s discussion of the soul in the fourth book of the Republic. Not only is this section interesting, but it was also extremely important for all proceeding moral philosophy, as Plato’s definition has been used ever since as a standard since then. Plato’s confabulation on the soul contains three main portions: defining each of the three parts and explanation of their functions, description of the interaction of the parts, and then how the the†¦show more content†¦For instance, consider an employee who has been assigned a project by his boss. The employee has been planning out the work he has to do, and has completed everything but one or two key parts, which can be left until the last night. However, on that night, the employee is invited by his friends to watch and tailgate for a football game, which he is lead to accept by council from his passions. This council, however, will also lead him to not complete the work project. On top of commonly being observed as at fault, the passions do not seem to have any apparent benefit either, as the appetite only directs one’s attention to his base needs, and not to higher pleasures or practices like the will and reason does. So, in the Platonic view, what is the worth of the appetite? Plato does not specifically enter the topic in his Republic, but the reader is able to come across a few conclusions from what is said. First, from all the time that Plato spends discussing and teaching about them, it is not likely (though still technically possible) for the passions to be a worthless part of the soul. Secondly, the fact the passions can be moderated by the other two parts of the soul (moderation like one restraining oneself from going to watch the football game in order finish the big project), seems to lead to the passions also being able to moderate the other two parts of the soul. An example of thisShow MoreRelatedPlatos View in Human Knowledge Essay examples1392 Words   |  6 PagesPlatos View in Human Knowledge Plato presents three different views about knowledge in Meno, Republic, and Theaetetus. In Menos case, Plato believes knowledge as something innate in us when we are born; in his later view, in Republic, Plato believes we perceive things and gain knowledge; and from the last view, in Theaetus, Plato believes knowledge is the combination of a true opinion and a rational opinion. 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Thursday, December 19, 2019

White Supremacy Is Influencing The Young People Of Today

Have you ever wondered if White Supremacy is influencing the young people of today the wrong thing? Why should White Supremacy in America be abolished? Over more than 200 years, White Supremacy has made an authority on the nation’s history, often through the federal and state laws, and it continues to be a visual element in the American society. White Supremacy was created during the 19th century, during the removal of the Native American tribes in the east of Mississippi to land west of the river. President Andrew Jackson thought native Americans and whites should not coexist. White supremacy should be abolished due to the really bad influence that is having on the young people of today. Some solutions that could help of the abolishment on White Supremacy is Arrest White Supremacist groups, have racism marked as a crime, and educate the population about racism and the harms of White Supremacy. Some opposing arguments are that White Supremacy is not setting a bad example ,It is helping the environment. However, this argument is not true. White Supremacy is a type of racism that can be taken in many ways. For example, (According to Jamie Liu from White Supremacy/Background .org), She states that Neo-Nazis,hate crimes,Ku Klux Klan, and so many are being made to prove the point of â€Å"White is the superior race†. The topic of racism and White Supremacy is an outgoing issue not only in the United States but in Europe, Africa, and even inShow MoreRelatedSkinhead Subculture Essay737 Words   |  3 Pagesthe new cool thing to fad. Mods were described as a subculture that began in London in 1958 and spread throughout Great Britain and elsewhere, eventually influencing fashions and trends in other countries. They were coined â€Å"modernists† (mods) because they listened to modern jazz. Skinheads are an offshoot of mods. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Structure Matrix Methods and Applications †

Question: Discuss about the Structure Matrix Methods and Applications. Answer: Introduction: Various academic discipline involving economics, anthropology, sociology, political science, psychology and philosophy impacts an enterprise management. Economics study influences the management to allocate resources in effective way. Anthropology study contributes in several management areas such as-wellness, recruitment process etc. Sociology study aids to assess managerial procedure in various societies. Study of political science influences the enterprises management practices. Psychology study aids the management to understand workers attitude towards work. Philosophy study affects management in maintaining effective governance, open culture etc. The historical background of management reflects that Egyptians and Chinese used specific had long term advisors and planners in managing any work. Sun Tzu planned military strategies by putting emphasis on significance of planning for wining the war. Chanakya Kautiliya also adopted modern management practice by recruiting staff through various interview processes. There are numerous management theories that todays firms use in administering business operations. These theories involves- general administrative theories, scientific management, organizational behavior and quantitative approach. Fayols general administrative theory was dependent on certain principles including- work division, centralization , personnel remuneration etc. In this context, Webers theory was dependent on few principles including- personnel selection, individuals promotionetc. Scientific management theory also termed as Taylorism focuses on improving management efficiency generally productivity of labor. Quan titative approach primarily integrate some numeric and analytical method into management decision making. Organizational behavior includes early advocates, Hawthorne studies, human relations movement and behavioral science theorist. At present day, companys management includes three approaches systems, contingency and process. In fact, current management practice trends also changed from past trends, which involve workforce diversity, innovation etc. There are few factors that influences globalisation such as- political, economic, cultural etc. Baylis, Smith and Owens (2017) opines that both domestic and international culture impacts globalisation. Additionally, regional trade contract also affects globalisation. For instance, Ganong Brothers, a renowned candy producer has made free trade contract with the US for selling their candies. This agreement along with increased cost influenced globalisation. Moreover, cultural differences between US value and alternate value in some instances such as hard work as factor to success, effective time management, loyalty commitment is highly evident from recent facts (Moran, Abramson and Moran 2014). Additionally, experts views on globalisation varied with each other. Anthony view was that globalisation impacts performance of capital market, Ghemawat views that national and economic integration leads to semi- globalisation. Furthermore, different framework of national culture such as Hofsted e and Trompenaar reflects differences in national culture (Doney, Cannon and Mullen 1998). Enterprise Culture and Management Enterprise culture mainly encompasses different values and behaviors, which contributes to unique psychological and social environment of the organization. Under the CEO of IBM, Grestner, the new strategy adopted by IBM was to utilize processes as well as culture for regaining benefit. The problems at IBM regarding changing its culture involves- high cost approach, focusing on product, outmode practice etc. Grestner plays crucial role in bringing about change in culture of this enterprise (Belak . and Milfelner 2012). In fact, this enterprise has ended its liberal policy which motivates remote work and thus employees are now forced back into the office for facilitating collaboration and providing outstanding service to customers. In fact, the dress code of the employees in IBM also changed over the years. Giachetti (2016) found out that, this change in culture might take near about 5 years. Hence, Gerstner will lead huge revolution for bringing about condition and incentive. There ar e mainly seven dimensions of enterprise culture, which involves- stability, innovation, aggressiveness, outcome orientation, Outcome, people and team orientation. Additionally, there are four determinants to enterprise culture that involves- intensity of enterprise culture, organization size and age, workers turnover and intensity to culture. Also four types of culture included in these enterprises are- power culture, role culture, task culture and above all persons culture. However, change in organizational culture has helped to improve the performance of IBM within the last few years. There are mainly six attributes to enterprise structure, which involves- specialization of work, formalization, centralization, chain of command, departmentalization and time of control. Moreover, the change in enterprise structure is influenced by skills as well as abilities of manager, availability of similar task, physical subordinates proximity, sophistication of enterprise information system. Additionally, there are two models of enterprise design, which involves- mechanic and organic structure (Giachetti 2016). In context to this, contingency factors of enterprise design include- technology, environmental uncertainty, structure, size and strategy of firm. There has been huge difference between traditional and contemporary enterprise design. Contemporary enterprise design is boundary less enterprise that involves- empowerment of team, limited command chain and wider span of control. Therefore, as managing new enterprise has been difficult for the management, they strategizes to use networks, collaborate with team, introduce flexibility in workplace and be innovative (Schermerhorn et al. 2014). Conclusion From the above study, it can be concluded the current trends in management style and practice is far better than the past management practices. The above activities highlights that differences in nations culture although influences enterprise, they should continue to adopt new strategy for improving their productivity as well as performance. However, the enterprise culture as well s structure should be designed by the management based on the present economic condition. References Baylis, J., Smith, S. and Owens, P. eds., 2017.The globalization of world politics: an introduction to international relations. Oxford University Press. Belak, J. and Milfelner, B., 2012. Enterprise culture as one of the enterprises key success factors (integral management approach): does the internal and external cultural orientation matter?.Acta Polytechnica Hungarica,9(3), pp.27-44. Doney, P.M., Cannon, J.P. and Mullen, M.R., 1998. Understanding the influence of national culture on the development of trust.Academy of management review,23(3), pp.601-620. Eppinger, S.D. and Browning, T.R., 2012.Design structure matrix methods and applications. MIT press. Giachetti, R.E., 2016.Design of enterprise systems: Theory, architecture, and methods. CRC Press. Moran, R.T., Abramson, N.R. and Moran, S.V., 2014.Managing cultural differences. Routledge. Schermerhorn, J., Davidson, P., Poole, D., Woods, P., Simon, A. and McBarron, E., 2014.Management: Foundations and Applications (2nd Asia-Pacific Edition). John Wiley Sons. Lasserre, P., 2017.Global strategic management. Palgrave.